Vezos Habracha – The Key to Simchas Yom Tov

Vehoyisa ach same’ach (Devarim 15:15) is an explicit source in the Torah for the obligation to be b’simcha throughout Succos. The Vilna Gaon famously described this as the hardest mitzva of Succos – to rejoice constantly throughout the eight days of Yom Tov. How can we fulfill this mitzva?

Of course, sitting in our succa is always a delight, assuming that we could build it close to home and the weather is reasonable. Our nashim tzidkanios prepare delicious seudos and if the rest of the family co-operate, everyone can enjoy them. But we are still looking for other reasons to be b’simcha. There are many, of course, but in this particular essay, I am looking for a path to simcha which we can learn from the final parsha of the year, Vezos Habracha, always read at the end of the week of Succos. I can already tell you that our source will be the very first letter of the parsha – the letter vav and why Moshe is called an Ish Ho’Elokim, a man of G-d, in the first posuk.

There is a non-Jewish song (and I am now giving my age away) made famous by Harry Secombe, which starts with the line, “If I ruled the world, every day would be the first day of Spring.” If we ruled the world, what day would we want every day to be?

In “L’Dovid Hashem Ori”, which we are still saying twice daily, Dovid Hamelech asserts, “Though an army would besiege me, my heart would not fear; though war would arise against me, bezos, in this I trust. The commentators grapple with what bezos refers to.

If you’ll excuse the intrusion, may I ask what you were thinking about a few days ago when you prostrated yourself on the floor three times during Musaf of Yom Kippur. If you were mainly concerned about how to avoid getting your kittel or skirt dusty, that is not an acceptable answer.

I will tell you what I was thinking about. The first time, it was about the amazing miracle which took place in the Beis Hamikdash when, despite the fact that people were standing shoulder to shoulder, there was suddenly ample room when everyone prostrated themselves. I was imagining myself being in the courtyard of the Beis Hamikdash when this was happening. It must have been a mind boggling, unforgettable experience.

The second time, I was aware of my face being close to the dust of the ground and I thought of the posuk in Hallel, Mekimi me’ofor dol – Hashem raises a poor man from the dust.” How Hashem has provided us all with whatever we own today. Our health, our family, our possessions, any achievements are all due to Hashem’s kindness. Without Him we would be utterly destitute.

The third time, I concentrated on the words we were saying, “Boruch shem kevod malchuso l’om vo’ed – Blessed be the name of His glorious kingdom for ever.” I pondered on the words, “for ever.” Of the people who lived a few generations ago, how many have we heard of? Maybe a few very famous people. The rest are no longer. We manage without them. And in a few years (120 iyH), we’ll also be gone and the world will carry on without us. What are we? Like a “passing shadow, a dissipating cloud and fleeting dream.” We are like “clay in the hand of the potter, curtain in the hand of the embroidered and silver in the hand of the silversmith.” Hashem is forever. The world is His.

Parshas Ha’azinu ends with what appears to be a great blow to Moshe Rabbeinu on the last day of his life. Hashem tells him, “Go up to Har Nevo and see the Land of Canaan which I am giving to the Children of Israel as a possession. You will die on the mountain…because you didn’t sanctify My Name amongst the Children of Israel. You will see the Land but you will not enter the Land which I am giving to the Children of Israel.” For forty years Moshe Rabbeinu gave his life to the Jewish People. On one occasion the people provoked him into a momentary lapse, he made a mistake, whatever it was, failed to sanctify Hashem’s Name as he could have. His punishment was that he would not be allowed to complete his life’s mission of leading the People into the future Eretz Yisroel. It seems to be a great tragedy. And Hashem reminds Moshe of this on his final day. What a sad end to forty years of leadership. They’ll be going in; he won’t. We would feel shattered; decades of superhuman effort coming to a humiliating end. We might entertain thoughts of unfairness, injustice and certainly great sadness. But Moshe Rabbeinu accepted everything, even this last message from Hashem, with simcha. How could he do that? Because he was an Ish Ho’Elokim. He recognized that Hashem is the fairest Judge and ultimate Merciful One. Whatever He decides is for the best. Moshe Rabbeinu knew that he was a mere mortal, fulfilling a certain role for a few years until others take over after him.

The letter vav of Vezos Habracha combines the last posuk of Ha’azinu with the first posuk of Vezos Habracha, as the Ohr Hachaim points out. This realization that Hashem rules the world, and we do not, is a blessing and a source of simcha. Confusion, filling our minds with what, in our opinion, could have happened and should have happened, leads to depression. Instead we should have full trust that Hashem, whose world it is, knows exactly what He is doing and it is all for the best. We are a mere passing shadow and a fleeting dream, as I was thinking on Yom Kippur, prostrated on my shul floor.

Perhaps this was what Dovid Hamelech was referring to when he said “Bezos ani vote’ach.” Facing battles, wars, sudden danger or potential disappointment, he put his trust in the “Zos” of Vezos Habracha that we don’t rule the world and it is pointless and indeed heretical, to consider what, in our opinion, should be changed for the better. The world is Hashem’s; we can rely on Him to do the right thing.

With this in our minds throughout Succos we can increase our simchas Yom Tov. We earned exactly what we were supposed to have earned last year. Our health is exactly as it should be. Every frustration was in exactly the measure our great and kind Judge decided was appropriate for us. Vezos Habracha – this understanding and belief is our blessing and the key to our simchas Yom Tov. Enjoy!

ישראל אשר בך אתפאר

In this penultimate haftora of comfort, Yeshaya speaks even more glowingly about our wonderful future. “Behold darkness may cover the earth and a thick cloud may cover the kingdoms but upon you, Hashem will shine and His glory will be seen upon you. (60:2). Never again will your sun set and your moon will not be withdrawn for Hashem will be to you an eternal light and the days of your mourning will be ended. Your people will be all righteous; they will inherit the land forever; a shoot of my planting, My handiwork in which I shall be glorified.” (60:20-21).

We are dumbstruck by such a prophecy. What more could we possibly hope for? The suffering of golus will pale into insignificance when we will enjoy eternal bliss. Just one question remains, which Yeshaya himself hints at in the next posuk. “The smallest (family) will increase a thousandfold and the youngest into a mighty nation. I am Hashem; in its time, I will hasten it.” When will this glorious era begin? “In its time, I will hasten it.” Some mefarshim understand this last phrase to mean that when the right time comes, Hashem will not delay. However Rashi sees a contradiction in these last words. “In its time” implies a set, predetermined time. “I will hasten it” implies that it could be earlier. And that is precisely how Rashi explains the posuk: if we merit it, Hashem will bring it earlier. If not, it will come at the right time. According to Rashi, then, if our behavior justified it, this most glorious era could begin already. It is a challenge and an opportunity but the problem is that Yeshaya doesn’t say which aspect of our behavior would trigger this early redemption. So we are left in the dark. Or are we?

The Rambam writes (Hilchos De’os 5:1) that just as a chochom is distinguished by his wisdom, he is also distinguished in his behavior. He does not overeat or eat voraciously. He is modest and respectful in his personal relationships. He doesn’t shout and speaks gently with others. He is the first to greet others. He judges people favorably and praises them. He loves and pursues peace. He walks with humility. He does not run wildly. His clothes are honorable and clean. His shoes are not torn. He honors his wife and children. His business dealings will be honest and will give others the benefit of the doubt. He pays immediately for what he buys. He prefers to be pursued than to be a pursuer, insulted rather than insult. About him, says the Rambam, is said the posuk, “Yisroel, in whom I shall be glorified.”

Interestingly these precise words are used by Yeshaya in today’s haftora. Could it possibly be that the examples of distinguished behavior mentioned by the Rambam are precisely the type of behavior which Yeshaya considered as the key to an early redemption? Why would this level of behavior be so crucial that it would earn us an early redemption?

In Matnas Chaim Reb Mattisyahu Salomon shlita discusses the halacha of putting our most valuable possessions on our Seder table. He says that the reason is to remind us of the time when we came out of Mitzrayim birchush gadol – with great treasure.” What was the significance of leaving Mitzrayim with great treasure? We do not consider material possessions to be an important part of living full Jewish lives. They are a useful asset, but some of our greatest leaders have been poor. And as we always say, “You can’t take it with you.” Surely key to Jewish life is the observance of mitzvos which can be done whether we are rich or poor.

When Hashem offered the Torah to the Jewish People at Har Sinai, He said that they could be a mamleches kohanim vegoy kodosh – a kingdom of priests and a holy nation. Rashi translates kohanim not as priests but sarim – men of status. To be a king over poor people who are totally dependent on him does not bring him much honor. For a crowd of helpless refugees to have accepted the Torah would not have proved much. What choice did they have? Hashem wanted them to have a rechush gadol – a great treasure so that they would be a strong and potentially independent people. If they still accepted the Torah, that would be a Kiddush Hashem and Kovod Malchus. That is why they had to be rich. Similarly it is important for us to put our most expensive and beautiful possessions on our Seder tables to remind us that we were not nebachs when we left Mitzrayim but wealthy people. We had the option of building our own future, yet we opted to be Hashem’s People. Through such people, Hashem is glorified.

This, says the Matnas Chaim, is the significance of the qualities of the Talmid Chochom as listed by the Rambam. He is honorable and refined. He may not be materially wealthy but he is an aristocrat. He fulfills the Jewish people’s mission to be a mamleches kohanim vegoy kodosh. And as the Rambam concludes, this is the type of person about whom Hashem says, ‘Yisroel through whom I will be glorified.’

Yeshaya, in this haftora speaks about our glorious future but he doesn’t tell us clearly when this glorious new era will begin. He does mention, however, that Hashem will be glorified through the Jews. Perhaps he is referring to the aristocratic qualities which Jews need to show, as listed by the Rambam, as a prerequisite to this new era. The material success which He will bless us with in the future was already mentioned. “In the place of copper I will bring gold, in the place of iron I will bring silver.” (60:17) But nobility of spirit, dignity and gracious behavior can be ours even now in galus, making us worthy of an early redemption.

Oh Childless One, Sing and be Happy

In this latest haftora of comfort, for parshas Ki Seitzei, Yeshaya again looks forward to the great Geula of the future. “Oh childless one, sing and be happy… Make plenty of space for all the Jewish People who will be returning… They will burst out to the right and the left. They will inherit the nations and re-inhabit the destroyed cities.” (54:1-3).

It’s certainly comforting to we have a great future to look forward to. But we would like it to happen already. Why hasn’t it? Could Yeshaya be hinting to the reason?

Yeshaya describes the Jewish people in golus in different ways. Here he says, “childless one.” A few pesukim later (54:11) he uses the words, “afflicted, storm-tossed one.” Earlier (51:21) he said, “Drunk but not from wine.” It seems unlikely that Yeshaya was merely, varying his words for poetic effect. Each phrase has its own meaning and implications. In Eicha (1:2) Jerusalem is described as a widow. Why are there these different descriptions? Why did Yeshaya use the term, “childless one” here?

The Rambam (Hilchos Melachim 11:1) writes that “Hamelech Hamoshiach is going to arise and restore the Malchus Beis Dovid, rebuild the Beis Hamikdash, gather in the Jewish exiles and restore all the Laws of the Torah as they were. There will be korbonos, shmitta, yovlos as written in the Torah. Anyone who doesn’t believe in this or doesn’t yearn for his coming has not only denied the prophets but the Torah and Moshe Rabeinu, since the Torah says that Hashem “will have mercy on you, will bring back the Jews who have been exiled to all the nations of the world.” The Rambam has brought a source that there will be an ingathering of all the Jews – not believing in this, is denying the Torah. But where is the source that we have to yearn for its fulfillment? And why do we have to look forward to it? There is no obligation to look forward to do any other time-related mitzva. Whenever the time of the mitzva comes, we will do it. One of the questions we will all be asked is “Tzipisa l’yeshua? Why is it not enough to believe that the Moshiach will come? Why do we have to look forward to this time?

The Rambam (12:1-4) goes on to describe what will happen in the days of Moshiach in more detail. “Do not imagine that there will be a change in the natural world. When the posuk in Yeshaya says that the wolf will lie with the lamb, and the leopard with the goat, this is a moshol referring to a period of peace between the Jews and the nations of the world, who will all return to true belief. The nations will not be violent nor will they plunder. We do not know the true meanings in these mosholim but we will find out when the time comes. The Chachomim and the Nevi’im did not look forward to the days of the Moshiach in order to rule over the whole world or to fight against the nations or in the hope that the nations will raise us up. And not to eat, drink and be happy. But to be free to delve into the Torah and its wisdom without disturbance and to earn merits for the world to come. Then there will be no famines, no wars, no jealousy and no competition. All good things will be freely available and everybody will be free to learn about Hashem. The Jewish People will be very wise, knowing hidden things and will understand their Creator as much as a person can; as is written, “The world will be full of knowledge of Hashem as the water covers the sea.” (Chabakuk 2:14).\

The Mishna says (Sukkah 41a) that at first there was an obligation to take the lulav  on the seven days of Succos in the Beis Hamikdash and elsewhere just on one day. After the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash, Reb Yochanan ben Zakai decreed that the lulav should be taken on all seven days of Succos wherever we are, to remind us of how it was in the time of the Beis Hamikdash. The Gemara asks, “Where is the source that we should do things to remind us of how things were in the time of the Beis Hamikdash? The Gemara brings a posuk (Yirmiyahu 30:17) “They called Zion ‘discarded’; no-one cares about her.” From which we can learn, says the Gemara, that we have to care about her.” Yirmiyahu has just prophesied, “I am saving you from distant places and your descendants from the land of their captivity. Jacob will return and will be at peace and tranquil and none will make him afraid.” (30:10) The Gemara understood that this wonderful prophecy has not materialized because we show too little concern for Zion — how it was in the time of the Beis Hamikdash with the joy of the Avoda, the thrice-yearly homage to Hashem and the constant miracles. We used to smell the fresh hot scent of the lechem hapanim even though it was baked seven days earlier, how a tiny amount of the lechem hapanim was totally satisfying, how the crimson cloth turned white, as teshuva was accepted on Yom Kippur, how the azoroh was packed but everyone had enough space to prostrate himself as well as all the other constant miracles. (Yuma 21a).

If we don’t appreciate our majestic past, if we are quite happy in the present, then in the future Hashem will not give us back what we lost. In order to merit the Geula we have to be like the widow in Eicha who constantly thinks back to the joyful times she had with her late husband.

We have also to look forward to the days of Moshiach as the Rambam reminded us. “Not to rule over the world, not to eat, drink and be happy but to spend our days learning the Torah and its wisdom without disturbance.” It is not enough to believe that the Moshiach will come. Longing for it shows who we really are, what is really important to us. Do we really want a new Beis Hamikdash, korbonos, shemitta and yovlos? Do we want more time to learn the Torah? If we don’t, we can’t expect Hashem to send us the Moshiach. This is why the question, “Did you look forward to the salvation?” is crucial.

Yeshaya promises us a future ingathering of the exiles, an idyllic peace portrayed poetically and famously as the wolf lying down with the lamb but only if we are like a childless woman who craves a child desperately.  We cannot accept the present situation of golus hashechina and chillul Hashem; a world of tzaddik vera lo, rosho vetov lo; a world where every third rate monarch has a resplendent palace while the Beis Hamikdash of the Creator of the world lies in ruins. The source of the Rambam could be this pasuk in Yeshaya.

This is how Yeshaya comforts us this week. Hashem is waiting to send the Moshiach. But do we want him? Does the absence of a Beis Hamikdash matter to us? Do we yearn for it? If we do, promises Yeshaya, we will merit it. The time to sing and be happy will have come.

Wake Up – Arise from the Dust

Although Yeshaya has tried to comfort us in the first three weeks of the shiva d’nechemta, we still need more words of encouragement to help us survive spiritually during our long exile. What new ideas can this week’s haftora of Shoftim bring to our attention?

Anochi, anochi hu menachemchem,” begins Yeshaya. “Only through Me can you be comforted.” Looking to false gods for comfort does not help.  Don’t imagine that the religions of the world have answers not found in the Torah. Don’t think that immersing yourself in materialism will help. Don’t turn to drink to find solace. You will emerge from Golus only through maintaining your belief in Me and My Torah .

Mi at vatiri me’enosh yomus umiben odom chatzir yinasein.” Don’t think that your salvation is dependent on man who is here today but tomorrow in a grave.

Vatishkach Hashem osecha noteh shomayim veyoseid oretz. Have you forgotten Me who created you, who spread out all the heavens and established the earth?”

Ani Hashem Elokecho rogah hayom veyemu galov.” I am Hashem your G-d who decrees that a stormy sea calms down.

Hashem Tzevokos Shemo.” “I am the G-d of the sun and moon, the planets, stars and galaxies.”

Clearly I am the one to whom you should turn for help. How have you survived as a people all this time? In what merit have you outlived all the ancient empires?

Vo’osim devorai beficho uvetzeil yodo kisisich.” It is only because of your loyalty to the Torah which I put in your mouth to speak that I have protected you in the shadow of My hand.

This is how Yeshaya reinforces our belief and trust in Hashem. If this most powerful Creator is on our side to protect us, surely this is our greatest comfort . True, Golus is not easy. We are not in our land, we have no Beis Hamikdash with its open miracles where we went three times a year to pay homage to Hashem. We do not enjoy the material blessings which are appropriate for Hashem’s loyal followers. But who are we to presume to understand why we have been in Golus so long? The One who created the world and rules over the whole universe surely has His reasons for everything. A child may have no idea why his mother has taken him away from his toys and is walking with him down the road. As long as he is holding his mother’s hand, he is content. In her child’s eyes, a mother is all-knowing.

Now Yeshaya tells us the comforting, joyous news – after two thousand years Golus is almost over. We have fulfilled the conditions for the Geula.

Hisorari, hisorari kumi Yerusholayim asher shosis miyad Hashem es kos chamoso es kuba’as kos hatareila shosis motzis. – Wake up, wake up. Rise, O Jerusalem, you have drunk from the hand of Hashem the cup of His anger. You have drunk and drained the sediments of the cup of bewilderment.” Yeshaya is telling us, who have suffered at the hand of the nations of the world for two millennia, not only that have we already drunk the cup of Hashem’s anger because of aveiros we did in exile but we have drained even the last dregs of that cup. We have fulfilled every one of the curses in the Torah. We have been cursed in the city and cursed in the field. We have been cursed when we came in and when we went out. The heavens over our heads turned into brass and the land became iron. Our carcasses have been left for food for the bird of the sky and the beast of the earth. We built houses but we did not live in them, planted vineyards and never ate from their fruit. We became a parable – ‘the wandering Jew’ and an object of hateful slander – blood libels which continue to this day. We lived through days when we yearned for the night but on that same night we yearned for the day. We have been scattered among the peoples from one end of the earth to the other. Every sediment of that cup of anger we have already drunk. Now it is time to rejoice.

Uri, uri, livshi uzeich tzion livshi bigdei sifarteich Yerusholayim ir hakodesh. Wake up, wake up. Adorn yourself, Zion, with a re-established Beis Hamikdash, Kehuna, Sanhedrin, Malchus. (Malbim). Adorn yourself with clothes of splendor, Yerusholayim, because impure people will no longer enter you. Hisnaari me’ofor kumi. Shake off your dust and arise.” Pitzchu ranenu chorvos Yerusholayim ki nicham Hashem amo, go’al Yerusholayim. Burst out and sing, O ruins of Yerusholayim, because Hashem has comforted His people, He has redeemed Yerusholayim.


Illuminating the Darkness

This week, the haftora from parshas Re’eh is only read in sefardi shuls. In ashkenazi shuls it is delayed until parshas Ki Teitzei. It is the next haftora in the shiva d’nechemta – the seven weeks of comfort by the nevi’im following Tisha B’Av. Yeshaya again prophesies our glorious future. (54:11-13) “O afflicted, storm-tossed one who has not been consoled, Behold I will set down gems as your flooring stones and lay your foundation with sapphires.  I will set your window-frames with ruby, make your gates of carbuncle stones and all your boundary of precious stones.” Yeshaya seems to tell us that, our financial circumstances will be very comfortable, unlike our years in Golus. Our homes will be built with the most precious stones, with ‘money no object.’ But is this a comfort? Is poverty the reason for our discomfort in Golus? Baruch Hashem the Jews don’t do so badly. Most of our homes are adequate and some verge on the luxurious. Poverty is not per se an intrinsic part of Golus. The Ramban writes: “…all the curses of the Torah are for Eretz Yisroel before the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash or immediately after based on our behavior then. (Devarim 28:42).  Once we have been exiled, the posuk says “lo me’astim velo ge’altim lechalosom – I will not reject them to destroy them.” “On the contrary,” says the Ramban,“our financial situation in Golus will be relatively benign on the whole, better than the non-Jews.” So in what sense are Yeshaya’s words a source of comfort to us?

I would like to suggest two different ways that Yeshaya is comforting us with these words. My first way is Yeshaya “leshitasei.Yeshaya in our haftora is alluding to a concept he spoke about a few chapters later, based on Rosh Hashana 23a. “Says Reb Yochanan, “Woe to the idol worshipers who will have no atonement, as is written, (Yeshaya 60:17), ‘In place of the copper I will bring gold, in place of iron I will bring silver, in place of wood, copper and in place of stones, iron.’” And what about Rebbe Akiva and other Jewish martyrs? How will their deaths be atoned for? About them it is written in Yoel 4:21 ‘Venikeisi, domom lo nikeisi.’  I will atone for those who stole from the Jews by forcing them to pay back what they stole, many times over but there is no atonement for those who shed Jewish blood.”

We do not look forward to the Redemption to become rich. But we will become rich anyway. If the nations plundered our copper they will have to give us gold; if they plundered our iron they will have to pay back silver and so on, as Yeshaya writes. With all the money paid as restitution by the nations, we will be able to build our homes with precious stones as Yeshaya said. The knowledge that those who stole will pay back many times over and those who shed Jewish blood will have no atonement is quite a comfort for us, even now. In fact it is heartwarming to anticipate the traffic jams all over the streets of Europe, especially down the autobahn, as trucks full of money make their way to Eretz Yisroel to pay back the Jews for what the non-Jews stole from us. And this is from those who only plundered. Those who killed Jews or even co-operated in the killing of Jews will not have a mere monetary punishment. Domom lo nikeisi they will have no atonement.

But Yeshaya may also be giving us comfort in a different way. After Moshe Rabbeinu appealed, at the beginning of Vo’eschanan, to be allowed into Eretz Yisroel he was told, “Rav lach.” Rashi in one explanation says that Moshe Rebbeinu was being told that he should stop davening to enter Eretz Yisroel because he will receive something more important. “Harbeh mizeh shamur lecha .” What will Moshe Rabbeinu receive that is more important than Eretz Yisroel? Perhaps we can understand this if we refer to a similar statement said to Aaron Hakohen. When he was upset that he wasn’t included in the Chanukas Hamizbe’ach, he was told, “Shelecha gedola mishelohem.” There Chazal concluded the phrase, “She’atah madlik umeitiv es haneiros. Aaron’s role in preparing and lighting the menorah was more important than participating in the chanukas hamizbe’ach. (Bamidbar 8:2, Rashi) The menorah symbolized the Torah sheb’al peh as explained by many commentaries. It what sense was the Torah sheb’al peh more important than the Avoda in the Beis Hamikdash? And Moshe Rabbeinu symbolized Torah shebiksav which he brought down from Har Sinai. Perhaps he was also being told that, “Harbeh mizeh shamur lechah” – the Torah shebiksav which you represent is more important than Eretz Yisroel. In what sense?

Moshe Rabbeinu and Aaron Hakohen together represented the Torah in its totality – Torah shebiksav and Torah sheb’al peh. The importance of Torah is greater than both Eretz Yisroel and the Beis Hamikdash because, despite their huge significance, Klal Yisroel can survive without them, as evidenced by the nearly two thousand years of our present golus. But without the Torah we could not have survived more than a few generations. In this sense, for both Moshe and Aaron, “Shelecha gedola mishelohem. Their zechus and consequent reward is greater than those of who enter Eretz Yisroel or who participate in the Avoda in the Beis Hamikdash.

The very next posuk of Yeshaya after the description of our homes adorned with precious stones says, “Kol bonayich limudei Hashem verav shalom bonayich – all your children will be students of Hashem and they will enjoy peace.” The Malbim learns that the stones Yeshaya speaks about are symbolic of spiritual concepts. We can now explain that Yeshaya is comforting the ‘afflicted, storm-tossed one who cannot be consoled’ by assuring her that her children will return to her and even before they return to her, she can be comforted that they will be like precious stones. Even in golus, the Jewish homes will be adorned with the Torah which will be learned and practiced in them. “All your children will be students of Hashem and will be like precious stones in their determination to remain loyal to the Torah. Their beautiful middos tovos will shine in contrast to the coarseness of those not privileged to have the Torah’s inspiration. Their faith in Hashem will glow in contrast to the godless world around them. Their purity will illuminate the darkness of a world which in every generation tries to destroy the Jews to salvage their own conscience. And because of this, Hashem guarantees their survival and their eventual return.

In the merit of the Torah, Yeshaya assures and comforts us, “Mountains may move, hills may fall, but My  covenant with you will always remain, (54:10).

Rabbi Fletcher is the mechaber of the popular Family Halacha Series, Do You Know Hilchos Shabbos? Do You Know Hilchos Brachos? and Do You Know Hilchos Chol Hamoed? and his hashkafa sefarim, From Strength to Strength, Dancing in our Hearts and The Hidden Light.

He Promised

As we move through the shiva d’nechemta, the seven weeks of comforting by the nevi’im, we might remember Kiddushin 31b. Rav Abahu was an old man, in failing health when he asked his son Avimi for a cup of water. Avimi rushed to bring the water, but Rav Abahu had already dozed off. Rather than waken his father, Avimi crouched at the foot of the couch, glass of water in hand so that he could give his father a drink as soon as he woke up. While Avimi waited, he thought of a new interpretation of Tehilim 49, Mizmor L’Asaf. Rashi explains that Avimi had a question on the the words, “Mizmor l’Asaf.” The first pasuk says, “The nations have entered Your inheritance,” referring to the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash. The opening words should have been kina l’Asaf– a dirge of Asaf, rather than “Mizmor L’Asaf” a song of Asaf. As Avimi was crouching at his father’s feet, he had siyatta dishmaya and realized the positive side of the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash – He poured out His wrath on wood and stones. Rather than destroying the Jewish People for sins which made them unworthy of the Beis Hamikdash, Hashem destroyed the Beis Hamikdash. Now the Jewish People could do teshuva and be blessed in the future. Was there any connection between the fact that Avimi was just then crouching at the feet of his old, sick father and this optimistic interpretation of the Mizmor L’Asaf?

After the Romans had destroyed the Beis Hamikdash, Rebbe Akiva was once walking with Rabbon Gamliel, Rebbe Elozor ben Azariya and Rebbe Yehoshua. They noticed a fox coming out of the place which had been the Kodesh HaKadashim. Three of these great tannaim were so distraught that they cried, yet Rebbe Akiva laughed. He explained that since the prophecy of Micha which said, “Zion will be ploughed over like a field and Har Habayis will become like heaps of stone in the forest,” has been fulfilled, surely the prophecy of Zechariah that, “Old men and women will again sit in the streets of Yerusholayim with their staffs in their hands because of old age and streets of the city will be full of boys and girls playing,” will also be fulfilled. (Makkos 24b).

“Knesses Yisroel asked Hashem, ‘Engrave me on Your Heart,’ Hashem answered, ’My daughter, why do you ask for something which is sometimes seen and sometimes not seen? I will engrave you on the palm of My hand which I will always see.’(Taanis 4a). As the pasuk says, “Behold I have engraved you upon My palms.” (Yeshaya 49:16).

One of the six constant mitzvos is remembering what Amalek did to us when we left Mitzrayim. What aspect of Amalek are we supposed to remember and why is “Do not forget.” repeated at the end of the paragraph.(Devorim 17-19) We tend to think that the pasuk is commanding us to remember the evil of Amalek and never forget to destroy the Amaleki nation. However the Sefer Hachinuch has a completely different explanation. He says that the mitzva is to remember how Amalek attacked the Jews and how Hashem defeated and destroyed them. We must always remember and never forget that the same will happen to all enemies of the Jews who want to destroy us, that Hashem will destroy them.

In the Shemone Esrei we say, “Ki lishu’oscho kivinu kol hayom. – We have hoped for your salvation the whole day.” Is it true? Do we hope for Hashem’s salvation the whole day? Are we never involved in other matters which distract us from thinking about Hashem’s salvation?

A true story is told of a man who constantly expressed his love for his son. He assured him that he would always be there for him. ‘If you ever have any problem, I will come to help you.’ One terrible day, an earthquake struck the town where his son lived. The authorities informed the families that it was impossible for anyone to have survived in the flattened buildings. The father came immediately to see if he could do anything to find his son. “Maybe, just maybe, he is trapped but still alive.” The authorities said it was futile. The father refused to accept his son’s death and ran to the exact spot where he reckoned his son must have been when the earthquake struck. Indeed it was completely flattened with no sign of life. However the father began digging with whatever tools he had. After a whole day he was totally exhausted from his efforts and had achieved very little. The next day he was back digging down inch by inch. Nightfall came with no results. He came back on the third day with helpers and more tools and continued working. As nightfall approached, the father noticed that the ground was slightly softer and he thought that maybe it was a sign of something.  Soon a hole appeared and, miracle of miracles, he saw his son underneath with some other boys trapped under a table, weak and dirty, but still alive. As his father jumped down to embrace his son, the boy turned to his friends and said, “I told you my father would come to rescue me. He promised.”

While Avimi was waiting for his father to wake up, he must have thought how physically weak his father had become. Perhaps he wondered why Hashem had transformed a healthy man, the leader of a generation to a state where he could hardly stay awake. Perhaps he realized that we have such questions because our perspective is so limited. Hashem has His reasons for everything He does. Everything is for the best. Hashem was visibly preparing Rav Abahu for his future life in Olam Haba, where he would not need his physical body. Avimi might have moved on to the question of why Hashem allowed the Beis Hamikdash to be destroyed. He would have realized that Hashem could not simply have abandoned us. He has promised never to forget us. Avimi concluded that it was an act of kindness that Hashem poured out his wrath on wood and stones, allowing the Jewish People to live on.

“In every generation they rise up against us to destroy us.” Like Amalek, they will all be defeated and we will live on, b’ezras Hashem. Hashem sees and looks after the Jewish People continuously. He cannot forget us, because we are engraved in “the palm of His hand.” To Hashem a day is like a thousand years; throughout that “day’ when we suffered expulsions, persecutions, pogroms and a Holocaust, we never lost our faith and our confidence in Hashem’s ultimate salvation. Like Rebbe Akiva we saw, even in the depths of exile, the seeds of future redemption.

Yeshaya tells us, (49:14-15), “Zion perhaps thinks that Hashem has forsaken her, He has forgotten her.” Not true, says the navi. “Can a mother forget her baby, not have mercy on the child of her womb? And even if she would, I will never forget the Jewish People.” This is Yeshaya’s comfort to us. Hashem will never forget us. He loves us like “the apple of his eye.” We may go through difficult times but salvation will come eventually. He promised.

Just a Question of Time

The difference is plain. Like day and night.

After Yom Kippur we are cleansed, forgiven and atoned for. We feel like a new person.

After Tisha B’Av we seem to be back to square one. A whole day of beseeching Hashem to send the Moshiach, to be worthy of redemption ends in zero achievement. We go home from Maariv still hungry, still wearing dirty clothes, desperately needing a shower, having apparently got nowhere. How can we be comforted in these seven weeks of comfort? What words from the navi can give us a ray of light, some speck of optimism as we return to our old routine with our troubles possibly worse than before we started, three weeks ago?

In our daily Shemone Esrei we say that Hashem sustains the living with loving kindness, gives life to the dead in great mercy. He supports those who have fallen, He heals the sick, frees those who are imprisoned and keeps His promise to those who sleep in the dust. Who is like You, Master of mighty deeds and who is comparable to You? Why do we ask who is comparable to Hashem? What difference would it make, even if there were a certain power similar to Hashem, if that power is inferior to Hashem? Certainly our allegiance would be to Hashem, the greatest power. The second-greatest power is of no consequence. This question could be asked on a familiar line from both Shacharis and Maariv. “Who is like You amongst the mighty ones, Hashem? Who is like You, mighty in holiness, too awesome for praise, doing wonders? And if there would be a second grade god who is great but not as great as Hashem, that would make a difference? We are about to daven to Hashem, the greatest G-d. Only He is worthy to be davened to since He is superior to all other gods. Even a slightly inferior god is useless to us since it is also under Hashem’s power. Interestingly, Yeshaya HaNavi also says in the name of Hashem, in the section we read on Shabbos Nachamu, “Who is like Me, says the Holy One?”(40:25) What is the meaning of stating again and again that nobody is like Hashem?

On Tisha B’Av we look at ourselves and wonder what are we not doing right that Hashem has not sent the Moshiach yet? We know that the first Beis Hamikdash was destroyed because of the three cardinal sins of immorality, bloodshed and idol worship so we distance ourselves as far as we can from those heinous aveiros. We know that the second Beis Hamikdash was destroyed because of causeless hatred so we work on ahavas chessed. We know that believing in the ultimate redemption is not enough; we must also look forward to it, so we try to learn about what we are missing, what the Beis Hamikdash represented, why all our calamities throughout history are ultimately a consequence of the destruction of the Beis Hamikdash. Our tefilos are invigorated, as we appeal desperately to Hashem that we should suffer no more persecution, no more pogroms, no more Holocausts. What is holding up Moshiach? How much longer do we have to wait?

One answer could be that indeed we are ready but the world isn’t. Before the final geula, the world has to reject all other possible beliefs. To accept the Moshiach, the world has to have seen that there is no other religion, no other ‘ism’, no other possible explanation of our existence. There is only Hashem and His Torah. Everything else is false.

The world has to go through this long process. It needs to see to the futility of serving idols. It is totally false to give credence to any ‘alternative’ version of our Torah. The so-called daughter-religions are at best garbled half-truths. Communism did not lead to equality. Socialism did not create a fairer society. Zionism did not end anti-semitism. Reform Judaism is not only wrong but also a one-way street to national obliteration. The nation which promoted culture and the arts committed a Holocaust. Worship of the body is futile and creates misery. Atheism is an excuse for immorality because there is no immorality in the “survival of the fittest.”

If any of these alternatives to recognition of Hashem had any credibility, to the extent that they were in some way similar to Hashem, it might take eternity for the world to gain clarity in what is right and wrong. But we emphasise in our davening that there is nothing even similar to Hashem, no belief system which remotely compares to Hashem and His Torah. As Yeshaya continues (ibid), “Raise your eyes and see who created these, who brings out all the Hosts by number, who calls out each by name …and not one is missing.” Who indeed created the sun, moon and stars? The Heaven and Earth, the many galaxies? A graven image, a man here or a man there, by themselves?  The idea is ludicrous. How long can it take for the world to come to its senses? All the ancient peoples realised that “The Torah is the source of the wisdom of the Jews.” (Devarim 4:6). So how long can it take modern man to embrace the Torah as being the sole truth? Surely it is only a matter of time.

This is Yeshayahu’s comfort to us in these seven weeks of comfort. “Hang in there. Keep beseeching Hashem, keep avoiding the sins which caused the Batei Mikdash to be destroyed. Continue yearning for Moshiach. There is nothing even similar to Hashem and therefore it is just a question of time. Surely, very soon both the Jewish People and all the nations of the world will realise that Hashem is the only truth. And then Moshiach will quickly arrive.”

Yisgadal Veyiskadesh Shemei Rabboh

In the Shacharis Kedusha of Shabbos and Yom Tov, we implore Hashem to rule over us. This is a very strange request. Haven’t we all already accepted Hashem as our King? When we say the Shema we affirm that Hashem is our King. He is, was and always will be our King, as we repeat many times especially on Rosh Hashono when we crown Him as we hear the resounding tekios? What do we mean when we say and often sing ‘Vesimloch oleinu ki mechakim anachnu loch – Rule over us because we are waiting for You’?

Three times a day we say the two paragraphs of Oleinu. The first paragraph emphasizes how much we must thank Hashem that He has chosen us to be His People, mentioning also that He rules over Heaven and Earth. We can never thank Hashem enough for our beautiful inheritance. But why do we say the second paragraph, that the all idol worshippers should acknowledge Him, so often?  Of course we want Moshiach to come. But why do we repeat this request every time we say Oleinu?

The Rambam writes that it is a mitzvas asei to build a house for Hashem, ready for us to visit three times a year and bring korbonos in it. If possible it should be overlaid with gold. (Hilchos Beis Habechira 1:1 and 11)  Later he writes that it is a mitzvas  asei for the Beis Hamikdash to  be guarded even though there is no fear of enemies. (ibid 8:1)  The Rambam explains that guarding the Beis Hamikdash is a way of showing honour to Hashem: “One cannot compare a palace with guards to a palace without guards.”

All this is the minimum honour we can give to Hashem our King. Any powerful king has a resplendent palace which is a symbol of his power. His subjects will visit him regularly to pay homage to him and do there whatever he commands them to do. How much more so should we honour Hashem who is the King of Heaven and Earth.

This is indeed how things were in the time of the Beis Hamikdash, especially the first one. Shlomo Hamelech built a beautiful Beis Hamikdash in Hashem’s honour. Kohanim, Hashem’s hand-picked representatives, served there doing the prescribed Avoda. Three times a year all the People left their farms across Eretz Yisroel to come and pay homage to Hashem, bringing with them a sample of the blessings Hashem had granted them during the year.

During Pesach, my wife and I visited our family who live in various communities in England and we saw new shuls, new mikvaos and many Yidden davening, learning and living like loyal Jews. We were impressed. There are other beautiful communities in America, Australia, South Africa and many other places over the world. We are apt to be happy and proud of all these different communities in the “four corners of the world.”

However we may be forgetting our true lowly position or more accurately the terrible chillul Hashem in today’s situation. We have become used to Jews living mefuzar umeforad bein ho’amim – scattered among the nations. This is, for us, normal. But Hashem is King of the Heaven and Earth and His People should be living in honour in the special land which He gave us. Anything else is a chillul Hashem (Sotah 49a). Where is Hashem’s Beis Hamikdash, the symbol of His Kingship?  In ruins. As the prophets bemoaned, “Where is His strength, where is His might?” Instead of doing His Avoda we have to suffice with learning what used to be done. As the malachim ask, “Where is the place of His glory?”

This is a shocking, intolerable chillul Hashem.  We believe that Hashem is all-powerful but the facts on the ground seem to indicate otherwise. Modern idol-worshippers abound. We say that we are in golus but we forget about the golus of the Shechina.  Our lives continue as though all is well. Where are the signs of our shock, our disgust and our misery at this spiritual catastrophe?

Fortunately, however, the siddur, reminds us not to be satisfied. We speak of Hashem’s glory and might in the first half of Oleinu. But then, in response to our realization that the world which we see hardly reflects Hashem’s glory, we immediately express our hope that this horrible contradiction will soon be rectified; that all these ancient and modern idol-worshippers, will soon “bend their knees to Hashem” in an acknowledgement of their error. In Kedusha after proclaiming Hashem’s great Holiness we immediately plead, Mimkomecho Malkeinu  sofia, eineinu sir’eno malchusecho.” Of course we believe that You are the King of Heaven and Earth, but ’eineinu sireno malchusecho’ – we want to see Your Kingship and we want the whole world to see Your Glory. As we say in Yom Tov Musaf, “Galei kevod malchusecho – Reveal the honour of your Kingdom in the eyes of all humanity, bring in our scattered ones and enable us to perform Your service. This is not because we are tired of golus but because we want Your Name to be glorified and sanctified – Yisgadal veyiskadash Shemei Rabbo. Our Oleinu should not be said as we take off our talis or as we walk out of shul but in a way which shows our heartfelt desire to see imminently “the glory of Your strength.” Our mimkomecho should be said or sang with great passion as we implore Hashem to reveal His greatness and sanctity.

Our task on Tisha B’Av is to yearn for the time when Hashem’s glory will be revealed to all and He will be publicly and universally acknowledged as the King of Heaven and Earth.

ותחזינה עינינו בשובך לציון ברחמים


Tzaddik B’Emunoso Yichye

The korbonos are in the merit of our Ovos. (Rashi, Bamidbar 28:19 in the name of Reb Moshe HaDarshon). The bulls are the merit of the chessed of Avrohom; the rams in the merit of the yiras shomayim of Yitzchok. Now we come to sheep, which are in the merit of Yaakov; as the posuk says, “Yaakov separated the sheep.” What characteristic of Yaakov does this posuk  indicate? As we prepare for Shabbos Chazon,  the climax of the Three Weeks, during which we should try to follow the midos of the Ovos in order to merit the third Beis Hamikdash, we need to know which midda of Yaakov was exemplified by his separating  the sheep, in order to be zoche to bring korbonos again.

Separating the sheep was part of Yaakov’s deal with Lovon to fix his wages for all the years he worked for Lovon. It was, to our minds, the worst deal of the century. Yaakov separated the spotted and striped sheep from the plain ones. Spotted and striped offspring which would be born to those plain sheep will be the payment due to Yaakov. The chances of a plain sheep giving birth to spotted or striped sheep were almost zero so it looks as though Yaakov had been outwitted by the cunning Lovon. Nevertheless Yaakov was not deterred. Doing a certain amount of hishtadlus and placing his bitachon in Hashem, Yaakov accepted the deal. And the deal proved successful with many striped and spotted sheep born to the plain sheep. Yaakov had the proverbial “last laugh.”

Ba Chabakuk ve’he’emido al achas; tzaddik b’emunoso yichye.”(Makos 24a). In the end of days, our main challenge will be maintaining our emuna that Hashem is the Creator and Director of the universe. Since the Creation until recently, it was accepted by everyone that the world had a creator. People had the clarity and common sense to realise that a universe cannot create itself. Yes, certain people believed in different avoda zoros or garbled versions of the Torah, but that the world should have no creator was seen as farcical by a vast majority of people. In the final epoch before Moshiach, an amazing phenomenon will appear; intelligent people somehow believing that the universe created itself by some method which they themselves admit has not been discovered yet. (This is the nonsense which OFSTED demands our mosdos to teach).

In the last century particularly, events have challenged our emuna that Hashem runs the world. However, and this is precisely the tremendous zechus of those who maintain full emuna despite everything which has happened, we refuse to be sidetracked by events which we cannot understand. As I explain in my sefer The Hidden Light, (Menucha Publishing P18)

We have to decide what our belief is. If we maintain a childish belief in a god who has supernatural powers and is supposed to do anything we want at any time we demand it, we will have questions on our belief. Why didn’t he help when we needed it? If, however, we believe in Hashem who is the all-powerful Creator, responsible for the myriads of stars and every blade of grass; who provides food for every creature from the greatest to the smallest, who gives us strength for every step we take and every breath we breathe, we might still wonder why He allows certain events to happen. But to expect an explanation which we can understand pre-supposes that we are capable of understanding Hashem’s conduct. This is clearly a weak assumption. Such a Creator is so much greater than us in every possible way that there is no reason to assume that we will understand Him, His actions or His decisions. In fact if a person thinks that has the mental capacity to understand whatever Hashem does, he is contradicting himself. If we are equal to Hashem, why worship Him?

Another phenomenon raises questions on our emuna from the opposite angle. We see that Israel is a very successful modern state. Its economic level is equal if not superior to many western countries. It is a world leader in agriculture with many innovative methods of improving production, water purification and cyber-technology. It contributes, completely out proportion to its size and population, to medical science and international intelligence. World leaders queue up to meet the Prime Minister. International surveys testify that the citizens of Israel are amongst the happiest people in the world, especially in the religious areas. Unfortunately, most of those who govern and represent Israel are not religious Jews. Halacha has only a minor influence on state policy. It is hardly the Malchus Beis Dovid which we have been waiting for. So why does Hashem bless it so spectacularly?  In the past our emuna was challenged by extreme suffering. Now our emuna is challenged by the success of those who transgress the Torah. Why is the State of Israel so successful?

I think this can possibly be explained in three ways. Firstly, the Meshech Chochma (on Shemos 6:13) interprets a Medrash to mean that the tribes of Reuven, Shimon and Levi were not enslaved in Mitzrayim. He says that because they had been demoted in importance by Yaakov’s brochos, were they to have suffered slavery, they would have left the fold completely. One blow after another would have too much for them and they would have sought a future outside of Klal Yisroel.  After the destruction of the Holocaust, the morale of a vast majority of Jews was at an all-time low. Had they not seen an early return of Hashem’s blessings to the Jewish People, in material even if not in spiritual terms, many more Jews would have simply opted out of Klal Yisroel. Hence Hashem, in His wisdom, has seen fit to favour even a secular Israel with His blessings.

A second possible explanation is based on a Rashi at the beginning of Bamidbar (1:1). Rashi explains that when Hashem instructed that the Jewish People be counted, it was always an act of love. For instance after the sin of the golden calf Hashem counted those who had died in order to know the number of survivors and to express His love for them. (Sifsei Chachomim) The Jews were perhaps worried that because of their sin and subsequent punishment, Hashem no longer loved them. This show of love was a great comfort to them. Similarly after the Holocaust, many Jews may have deduced that Hashem doesn’t love them anymore. The spiritual renaissance and material successes that we have enjoyed since then, show that nothing could be further from the truth. For whatever reason, the gezeira of the Holocaust was necessary, but His love for us is as intense as ever.

A third possible explanation why Israel, despite being a secular institution led by secular Jews has enjoyed such unprecedented success is based on Kiddushin 36a. “The Jewish People are the children of Hashem; as the posuk says, “Bonim atem l’Hashem Elokeichem.” (Devarim 14:1). How do we know that even if the Jews serve idols they are stilled called the children of Hashem? Says the posuk, “Even if people say to you, (in golus) ‘You are not My people,’ it shall be said to them, they are the children of the living G-d.” (Hoshea 2:1). Hashem seems to be reminding all of us, that despite our sins, even our extreme sins, which are surely no worse than worshipping idols, we are still His children and a Father loves His children.

This emuna which we hold on to despite many challenges, is the emuna exemplified by Yaakov Ovinu when he separated the sheep and throughout the long and difficult years when he faced a succession of demanding tests. It is our unbreakable faith in Hashem that Chabakuk was referring to when he said, “Tzaddik b’emunoso yichye.” Through our emuna Hashem grants us life.  And our emuna, despite the many years of golus, together with our emulating the other midos tovos of the Ovos will, hopefully, cause Hashem to  zocher chasdei Ovos – remember all the righteous acts of our Ovos and meivi Goel livnei veneihem, bring the Redeemer to their children’s children, bimheira beyomeinu omein.


Going in the Right Direction

Last week we quoted Rashi saying that we bring bulls as korbonos in the merit of Avrohom because he ran to shecht a bull to give hospitality to his guests. We deduced from this that if we want to earn the opportunity to bring bulls as korbonos in a rebuilt Beis Hamikdash, we have to go in the ways of Avrohom Ovinu, in particular, following his example in chessed. Rashi also says that we bring rams as korbonos in the merit of Yitzchok who was prepared to be brought as a korbon himself and was only replaced by a ram at the last second. This requires us to follow Yitzchok’s example of fearing Hashem if we want to merit bringing rams in the rebuilt Beis Hamikdash.

This appears more difficult. To do chessed is to some extent, natural. We enjoy helping others. Following Avrohom’s example is a challenge, but a challenge which we can meet with simcha. Fearing Hashem, to the extent that Yitzchok did, goes against our instinct for self- preservation. How can we take on such a seemingly unsumountable challenge?

I remember an exchange which took place in Glasgow about thirty years ago between Rabbi Chaim Jacobs of Lubavitch and some members of the community at a public gathering. Somebody asked Rabbi Jacobs why Lubavitch teach the children to say brochos  in their cheder when the parents don’t say brochos. I remember his answer. He said, “One day you’ll thank us that your children will not be under the impression that they can do whatever they want, whenever they want.”

When we learn about saying brochos before we eat, we are learning to fear Hashem. We are learning that we can’t just do whatever we want, whenever we want. We have a G-d who allows us to do certain things and does not allow us to do other things. We don’t just grab food and put it into our mouth. First we have to check that the food is kosher. Next, what the correct brocho is. Is it milchig if we are fleishig. This teaches us self-control. Indeed it is the beginning of learning to fear Hashem. It is not merely a drush which extrapolates the mitzva of saying one hundred brochos per day from the posuk “What does Hashem ask from you …except for fearing Him.” Brochos and fearing Hashem are intertwined.

We learn to say brochos when we are young because this is how the process begins. We asked how we can reach the level of Yitzchok’s fear of Hashem. The answer is that we cannot reach his level in a moment or two or three. It is a long process, possibly the work of a lifetime. In the meantime we can climb the ladder of yiras Hashem step by step.

We start with a fear of punishment. Hashem seems to be an extension of our parents or teachers who will punish us  if we cross the road without looking right, left and right again. So Hashem will punish us if we transgress one of His mitzvos. Although this is a childish concept, it is an important first step. If a child is told gently that it not a good idea to cross the road without looking because he might be hurt, this will not enter his mind very deeply. And if a ball or an ice-cream van happens to be on the other side of the road, he might just forget the benign warning he was given. However if he is told that he will be severely punished if he runs into a road without looking, fear of punishment might be more effective and help him think twice. Similarly we have to realise that Hashem is not just giving us good advice when He tells us to do mitzvos but He will punish us severely for any transgression. This might be more effective when we are faced with a strong temptation to sin. “Consider what you will gain from doing this sin — a moment’s gratification, compared to the loss — severe punishment which Hashem can give us.”(Pirkei Avos 2:1)

As our concept of Hashem matures, we realise that He is not just a disciplinarian. He provides for us constantly. As a person’s knowledge of his body increases we realise that we are dependent on Hashem for the good functioning of countless aspects of our physical and mental health. Now we will not just obey Hashem because otherwise he will punish us. We understand that we are so utterly dependent on Him that only a fool would transgress His will. If we are sinning, who will keep our heart beating if Hashem decides against continuing to give us life? Our yiras Hashem will already be on a higher level than before. We are climbing the ladder.

In time, hopefully, our recognition of what Hashem does will continue to grow. He doesn’t just provide for us. He provides for every creature from the eagles in the sky, the elephants on the plain and the small ants on the ground. He provides sunshine, rain and winds according to what the world needs. He controls all the Hosts of the Heavens, millions of galaxies. Transgressing His will is futile. Can we hide from Him? Can we disobey Him? Can we question His authority? The idea of not doing what He says is absurd and self-defeating . If He commands, we do it, without question.

Whilst we may consider these concepts from time to time, thinking about them constantly  –Shivisi Hashem lenegdi tomid is the level of tzadikim. To be able to think about the greatness of Hashem at every moment, whatever we are doing, without a pause, is the level of our Gedolim. When a person is on that madreiga, even if Hashem says to him, “Give up your life for Me,” he will obey without question. This was the madreiga of Yitzchok Ovinu, symbolized by the ram.

It is our task to aspire to this level if we want to bring a ram in the rebuilt Beis Hamikdash. We may not be   on the top rung of the ladder, or even half way up. But if we are at least on the ladder, trying to climb, Hashem will certainly rejoice that we are going in the right direction.